The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is investigating a case of poliomyelitis, or paralytic polio, in New York state in an unvaccinated patient who presented to an emergency room with lower limb weakness and fever. CDC urges all healthcare providers to ensure their patients are current on the primary polio vaccination series. Healthcare providers should consider polio in the differential diagnosis of patients with sudden onset of limb weakness, especially in unvaccinated individuals and those with recent international travel to places where poliovirus is circulating. During this COCA Call, presenters will discuss the history of polio in the United States and the current New York state outbreak. They will also review clinical aspects of poliovirus infection, how to report suspected cases and recommendations for polio vaccination in the U.S.